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Europe relies primarily on imports to meet its natural gas needs

Europe relies primarily on imports to meet its natural gas needs

Europe (EU-27) and the United Kingdom (UK) natural gas supply

Source: Graph created by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on data from Eurostat and the International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL) annual liquefied natural gas trade reports
Note: Due to reporting requirements, some volumes of pipeline-imported natural gas are not attributed to a source country.

Imports of natural gas by both pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) provided more than 80% of the supply of natural gas to the countries of the European Union (EU-27) and the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020, up from 65% a decade earlier. During 2020, natural gas imported into the region by pipeline made up 74% of all natural gas imports, and LNG accounted for the remaining 26% of total imports.

Pipeline imports of natural gas into the region come from Russia, Norway, North Africa, and Azerbaijan. Pipeline imports originating in Russia—the largest supplier in the region—grew from about 11 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2010 to more than 13 Bcf/d in 2020 (a low consumption year due to COVID-19 related impacts). Despite construction of new pipelines, imports from Norway averaged around 9 Bcf/d between 2010 and 2020, as development of new fields in the Barents Sea section of the Norwegian offshore Continental Shelf was insufficient to offset declines from mature fields in the North Sea.

major natural gas delivery routes into the European market

Source: Map created by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on data from Fluxsystem; Gazprom; BBL, TANAP; TAP; Norske Petroleum; Gassco; Ireland 2050; National Grid; Hrvatska LNG; SNAM; Orsted; and CRE.fr

Although LNG imports made up about 26% of all natural gas imports, they provided about 20% of all of the natural gas supplied to the EU-27 countries and the UK in 2020. LNG imports tend to fluctuate from year to year—from as low as 3.6 Bcf/d in 2014 to as high as 10.1 Bcf/d in 2019…

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