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Wealth Gap And The Road To Serfdom

Wealth Gap And The Road To Serfdom

One of the most interesting conundrums is the surging wealth gap in America. Despite two of the largest bull markets in history since 1980, most Americans struggle with making ends meet and are unprepared for retirement. Such a reality starkly differs from the belief that rising asset prices benefit the masses.

For example, in a recent St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank analysis, total household wealth was $139.1 trillion, covering 131 million families. Of that total wealth, 74% was owned by just 13.2 million families, or roughly 10% of the population.

Wealth Distribution

Notably, this measure of wealth includes the equity of the family’s home. While home equity is essential, it is not readily spendable without taking on debt to extract the value. Therefore, Americans’ “liquid wealth” is far more unequally distributed. However, such is hard to fathom given the endless parade of media and social media influencers extolling the virtues of “building wealth through investing.”

Interestingly, that survey came after the Government injected nearly $5 trillion into the economy, a massive surge in deficit spending, and the Fed’s $120 billion monthly injections doubled asset prices from the March 2020 lows. Unsurprisingly, in February, Fidelity published its latest analysis showing the number of retirement accounts with balances of more than $1 million surged toward a record. To wit:

The number of seven-figure 401(k) accounts at Fidelity Investments jumped 20% in 2023’s final quarter to 422,000, marking a sharp recovery from the previous quarter’s 7.7% drop.

Gains in the stock market helped swell retirement balances last year as the S&P 500 advanced 24% following 2022’s 19% decline. The impressive run was powered in large part by the so-called “Magnificent 7” stocks that now make up roughly 30% of the market-cap weighted S&P 500 Index. The only time when the ranks of 401(k) millionaires at Fidelity was higher was in 2021’s fourth quarter, when there were 442,000 such accounts. Elsewhere, the number of seven-figure IRAs is at a record 391,600 accounts.” – Bloomberg

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

Is the Fed trying to wean the markets off monetary policy? Such was an interesting premise from Alastair Crooke via the Strategic Culture Foundation. To wit:

“The Fed however, may be attempting to implement a contrarian, controlled demolition of the U.S. bubble-economy through interest rate increases. The rate rises will not slay the inflation ‘dragon’ (they would need to be much higher to do that). The purpose is to break a generalised ‘dependency habit’ on free money.”

That is a powerful assessment. If true, there is an overarching impact on the economic and financial markets over the next decade. Such is critical when considering the impact on financial market returns over the previous decade.

“The chart below shows the average annual inflation-adjusted total returns (dividends included) since 1928. I used the total return data from Aswath Damodaran, a Stern School of Business professor at New York University. The chart shows that from 1928 to 2021, the market returned 8.48% after inflation. However, notice that after the financial crisis in 2008, returns jumped by an average of four percentage points for the various periods.

Monetary, Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

We can trace those outsized returns back to the Fed’s and the Government’s fiscal policy interventions during that period. Following the financial crisis, the Federal Reserve intervened when the market stumbled or threatened the “wealth effect.”

Monetary, Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

Many suggest the Federal Reserve’s monetary interventions do not affect financial markets. However, the correlation between the two is extremely high.

Monetary, Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

The result of more than a decade of unbridled monetary experiments led to a massive wealth gap in the U.S. Such has become front and center of the political landscape.

Monetary, Monetary Policy. Is The Fed Trying To Wean Markets Off Of It?

It isn’t just the massive expansion in household net worth since the Financial Crisis that is troublesome. The problem is nearly 70% of that household net worth became concentrated in the top 10% of income earners.

…click on the above link to read the rest…

One Monetary Policy Fits All – Part II

One Monetary Policy Fits All – Part II

In Part one of this series, Our Currency The World’s Problem, we discuss the vital role the U.S. dollar plays in the global economy. With an understanding of the dollar’s role as the world’s reserve currency, it’s time to discuss how the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy machinations influence the dollar and, therefore, the global economy and financial markets.

Given the Fed’s recent extreme monetary policy actions, which haven’t been seen in over 40 years, it is more important now than ever to appreciate the potential global consequences of the Fed’s stern fight against inflation.

Triffin’s Paradox

In Part 1, we highlight the following two lines, which help describe Triffin’s paradox.

“To supply the world with dollars, the United States must consistently run a trade deficit. Running persistent deficits, the United States would become a debtor nation.”

“Simply the growing divergence between debt and the ability to pay for it, GDP, is unsustainable.”

Increasingly borrowing without the means to pay it off is unsustainable. The terms zombie company or Ponzi Scheme come to mind when considering such a system. That said, because the printer of the currency and taxer of its citizens is in charge, we can only ask how long the status quo can continue.

The answer is partially up to the Fed. The Fed can use QE and low-interest rates to delay the inevitable. As we now see, the problem is that those tools are detrimental when there is high inflation. Fighting inflation requires higher interest rates and QT, both of which are problematic for high debt levels.

Financial Tremors

The Bank of England is bailing out U.K. pension funds. The Bank of Japan uses excessive monetary policy to protect its currency and cap interest rates…

…click on the above link to read the rest…

The Biggest Crash In History Is Coming? Kiyosaki Says So.

The Biggest Crash In History Is Coming? Kiyosaki Says So.

Robert Kiyosaki recently tweeted, “The best time to prepare for a crash is before the crash. The biggest crash in world history is coming. The good news is the best time to get rich is during a crash. The bad news is the next crash will be a long one.”

Is Kiyosaki just being hyperbolic, or should investors prepare for the worst?

Importantly, I received Kiyosaki’s comment in an email that I could find out more by just clicking on the link to get a “free” report.

I can save you time, and future spam emails, by telling you that Kiyosaki will be correct.


However, the problem, as always, is “timing.”

As discussed previously, going to cash too early can be as detrimental to your financial outcome as the crash itself.

Over the past decade, I have met with numerous individuals who “went to cash” in 2008 before the crash. They felt confident in their actions at the time. However, that “confidence” gave way to “confirmation bias” after the market bottomed in 2009. They remained convinced the “bear market” was not yet over, and sought out confirming information.

As a consequence, they remained in cash. The cost of “sitting out” on a market advance is evident.

As the market turned from “bearish” to “bullish,” many individuals remained in cash worrying they had missed the opportunity to get in. Even when there were decent pullbacks, the “fear of being wrong” outweighed the necessity of getting capital invested.

Biggest Crash, The Biggest Crash In History Is Coming? Kiyosaki Says So.

The email I received noted:

“If such a disaster could be in the making, your assets are at risk and this requires your immediate attention! And if you believe that now isn’t the time to protect yourself and your family, when will it be?”

Let’s start with that last sentence.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

A 50-Percent Decline Will Only Be A Correction

A 50-Percent Decline Will Only Be A Correction

A 50-percent decline will only be a correction and not a bear market.

I know. Right now, you are thinking, how could anyone suggest a 50-percent decline in the market is NOT a bear market. Logically you are correct. However, technically, we need an essential distinction between a “correction” and a “bear market.”

In March 2020, the stock market declined a whopping 35% in a single month. It was a rapid and swift decline and, by all media accounts, was an “official” bear market. But, of course, with the massive interventions of the Federal Reserve, the reversal of that decline was equally swift. As YahooFinance pointed out at the time.

“The S&P 500 set a new record high this week for the first time since Feb. 19, surging an eye-popping 51% from its March 23 closing low of 2,237 to a closing high of 3,389 on Tuesday. This represents the shortest bear market and third fastest bear-market recovery ever.” – Sam Ro

50-percent decline, A 50-Percent Decline Will Only Be A Correction

However, as I discussed at the time, March 2020, much like the “1987 crash,” was in actuality only a correction. To understand why March was not a “bear market,” we must define the difference between an actual “bear market” and a “correction.”

50-percent decline, A 50-Percent Decline Will Only Be A Correction

Defining A Correction & A Bear Market

Start with Sentiment Trader’s insightful note following the 2020 recovery to new highs.

“This ended its shortest bear market in history. Using the completely arbitrary definition of a 20% decline from a multi-year high, it has taken the index only 110 days to cycle to a fresh high. That’s several months faster than the other fastest recoveries in 1967 and 1982.”

Note their statement that the media’s definition of a “bear market” consisting of a 20% decline is “completely arbitrary.” Given that price is nothing more than a reflection of the psychology of market participants, using the 20% definition may not be accurate any longer.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Potemkin Economy: Costs & Consequences

Potemkin Economy: Costs & Consequences

A Potemkin economy has lured the Fed, economists, and Wall Street analysts into a potentially dangerous assumption of economic normalcy. However, with a review of how we got here, we can better understand the costs and consequences of monetary interventions.

“In 1783, after the Russian annexation of Crimea from the Ottoman Empire and the liquidation of the Cossack Zaporozhian Sich, GrigoryPotemkin became governor of the region. Crimea, devastated by the war, and the Muslim Tatar inhabitants became viewed as a potential fifth column of the Ottoman Empire. Potemkin’s major tasks were to pacify and rebuild the country by bringing in Russian settlers.

In 1787, as a new war was about to break out between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Catherine II, with her court and several ambassadors, made an unprecedented six-month trip to New Russia. One purpose of this trip was to impress Russia’s allies prior to the war. Another purpose was to familiarize herself, supposedly directly, with her new possessions.To help accomplish this, Potemkin set up “mobile villages” on the banks of the Dnieper River. As soon as the barge carrying the Empress and ambassadors arrived, Potemkin’s men, dressed as peasants, would populate the village. Once the barge left, the village was disassembled, then rebuilt downstream overnight.” – Wikipedia

While there is some debate about the accuracy of the story, in politics and economics, a Potemkin village is any construction (literal or figurative) whose sole purpose is to provide an external façade to lead the population to believe the country is faring better than reality. 

A reasonable amount of data suggests the Federal Reserve and the Government created such a facade.

A Potemkin Market

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…


Could The Fed Trigger The Next “Financial Crisis”

Could The Fed Trigger The Next “Financial Crisis”

Could the Fed trigger the next “financial crisis” as they begin to hike interest rates? Such is certainly a question worth asking as we look back at the Fed’s history of previous monetary actions. Such was a topic I discussed in “Investors Push Risk Bets.” To wit:

“With the entirety of the financial ecosystem more heavily levered than ever, the “instability of stability” is the most significant risk.

The ‘stability/instability paradox’ assumes all players are rational and implies avoidance of destruction. In other words, all players will act rationally, and no one will push ‘the big red button.’

The Fed is highly dependent on this assumption. After more than 12-years of the most unprecedented monetary policy program in U.S. history, they are attempting to navigate the risks built up in the system.

The problem, as shown below, is that throughout history, when the Fed begins to hike interest rates someone inevitability pushes the “big red button.”

Next Financial Crisis, Could The Fed Trigger The Next “Financial Crisis”

The behavioral biases of individuals remain the most serious risk facing the Fed. While they may hope that individuals will act rationally as they hike rates and tighten monetary policy, investors tend not to act that way.

Importantly, each previous crisis in history was primarily a function of extreme excesses in one area of the market or economy.

  • In the early 70’s it was the “Nifty Fifty” stocks,
  • Then Mexican and Argentine bonds a few years after that
  • “Portfolio Insurance” was the “thing” in the mid -80’s
  • Dot.com anything was a great investment in 1999
  • Real estate has been a boom/bust cycle roughly every other decade, but 2007 was a doozy

What about currently?

A Bubble In “Everything”

No matter what corner of the market or economy you look there are excesses.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

How Durable Is The Potemkin Economy?

How Durable Is The Potemkin Economy?

“Increased borrowing must be matched by increased ability to repay. Otherwise, we aren’t expanding the economy – we’re merely puffing it up.” – Henry Alexander of Morgan Guaranty Trust

The original Potemkin Village dates to the late 1700s. At that time, Russian Governor Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin constructed facades to hide the poor condition of his town from Empress Catherine II.

Since then, Potemkin Village represents a false construct, physical or narrative, created to hide the actual situation.

As the pandemic ravaged the economy, the Federal Reserve, White House, and Congress went to work and built a Potemkin economy around the ailing economy.

As a result, the curb appeal of today’s economic recovery is beautiful. However, when our clients’ wealth is at stake, we understand looks can be deceiving. As such, we prefer to open the front door and explore the real economy. In the long run, it is sustainable economic growth that supports asset prices. In the short run, however, investors may continue to be mesmerized by the Potemkin economy. At some point, any differences between the Potemkin economy and the actual economy will become problematic for investors.

Selling A Narrative

Narratives of a booming economic recovery can only mislead the public and investors for so long. Toss in robust economic data, and the façade seems awfully real.

Consider the following:

Nominal GDP is now 4.5% above the high-water mark set pre-pandemic. Historically, economic recoveries do not get more “V-shaped!”

Potemkin economy, How Durable Is The Potemkin Economy?

Retail Sales are running about 12% above its trend of the last ten years. The premium represents nearly five years of growth at the prior trend.

Potemkin economy, How Durable Is The Potemkin Economy?

CPI and Core CPI (excluding food and energy) are nearly triple their respective growth rates of the last five years.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

History Warns The Fed Will Raise Interest Rates More, Not Less

History Warns The Fed Will Raise Interest Rates More, Not Less

History Warns The Fed Will Raise Interest Rates More, Not Less

“Currently, the December 2019 Fed Funds futures contract implies that the Fed will reduce the Fed Funds rate by nearly 75 basis points (0.75%) by the end of the year. While 75 basis points may seem aggressive, if the Fed does embark on a rate-cutting policy and history proves reliable, we should prepare ourselves for much more.”- Investors Are Grossly Underestimating the Fed

Our advice to plan for the unexpected was prescient. When we wrote the article in July 2019, Fed Funds were between 2.25% and 2.50%. The Fed Funds futures contracts were implying the Fed would reduce rates by .75% in the forthcoming months.

By April 2020, Fed Funds were trading near zero, 1.50% below where the market thought they would be in mid-2019. The article quantifies the Fed always raises or cuts rates much more than expected.

Today, the market is pricing in steady increases, starting in 2002, for the Fed Funds rate. Despite high inflation and low unemployment, the Fed refuses to even think about thinking about raising rates.

Given the Fed’s posture, it may appear traders are overestimating how much the Fed will raise rates.  However, we caution once again; traders always underestimate the Fed.


Whether higher Fed Funds seems logical is irrelevant. As investors, we need to strategize in case history proves clairvoyant. Given the Fed is starting to normalize monetary policy, it’s worth revisiting the article from 2019.

We recommend reading the article’s first section linked above for more background on Fed Funds and their futures contracts.

The graph below shows how much the Fed Funds futures market consistently over or underestimates what the Fed does. The green areas and dotted lines quantify how much the market underestimates how much the Fed ultimately reduces rates…

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

What is the Federal Reserve Hiding From Us?

What is the Federal Reserve Hiding From Us?

The most inappropriate monetary policy that I’ve seen maybe in my lifetime.”- Paul Tudor Jones on the Federal Reserve via CNBC

The Federal Reserve has three mandates per their Congressional charter. They are to effectively promote maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. The Fed has met the first goal, employment is largely maximized. As far as the other two, the Fed is running monetary policy consistent with destabilizing prices and doing it with interest rates that are well below moderate.

Why are they employing the “most inappropriate monetary policy” that famed investor Paul Tudor Jones has seen in his lifetime? Maybe the better question is, is such an aggressive policy, which purposely goes against their mandate, hiding something?

Fed Mandate Scorecard

To provide context to the questions, let’s review the three Fed mandates and compare their current standing to the past.

Federal Reserve, What is the Federal Reserve Hiding From Us?

Maximum Employment

The unemployment rate is slightly above the average of the five years leading to the pandemic but over 1% below the longer-term average. The two alternative employment measures, which factor in job openings and those willingly quitting jobs, show the adjusted unemployment rate is well below the 20-year average.

Traditional measures of employment are essentially fully recovered from the pandemic. Alternative measures, such as those above, tell us the labor market is healthier than almost any time in the last 20 years.

Stable Prices

Inflation measured by CPI and the Fed’s preferred method, PCE, runs two to three times the rate of the last five and twenty years. Five-year market-implied inflation expectations are up to 2.90%, about twice that of the previous ten years. Consumer inflation expectations, measured by the University of Michigan, are nearing 5%, also twice that of the last ten years.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

The 5000-Year View Of Rates & The Economic Consequences

The 5000-Year View Of Rates & The Economic Consequences

The fact we have the lowest interest rates in 5000-years is indicative of the economic challenges we face. Such was a note brought to my attention by my colleague Jeffrey Marcus of TPA Analytics:

“BofA wants you to know that ‘Interest rates haven’t been this low in 5,000-years.‘ That’s right, 5000 years. ‘In the next 5,000 years, rates will rise, but no fear on Wall Street this happens anytime soon,’ said David Jones, director of global investment strategy at Bank of America. This should not come as a shock to anyone who has been watching, given that the FED’s balance sheet is now an astonishing $8.5 trillion and that fiscal spending has caused the U.S. debt to balloon to over $28 trillion (For reference, the U.S. GDP is $22 trillion).

All of this really means that the FED and the U.S are in a tough spot. They need a lot of growth to dig out from mountains of debt, but they cannot afford for rates to move too high or debt service will become an issue.

Rates Economic 5000-year, The 5000-Year View Of Rates & The Economic Consequences

Yes, rates will probably rise at some point in the next 5000-years. However, currently, the primary argument is that rates must increase because they are so low.

That argument fails in understanding that low rates are emblematic of weak economic growth rates, deflationary pressures, and demographic trends. 

Short-Term Rate Rise Can’t Last

In recent weeks, interest rates rose sharply over concerns of a debt-ceiling default and inflationary fears. But, asMish Shedlock noted, five factors are spooking the bond market.

  1. Debt Ceiling Battle: Short Term, Low Impact
  2. Supply Chain Disruptions: Medium Term, Medium Impact
  3. Trade Deficit: Long Term, Low-to-Medium Impact
  4. Biden’s Build Back Better Spending Plans: Long Term, High Impact
  5. Wage Spiral: Long Term, High Impact

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Markets Next “Minsky Moment”

Technically Speaking: The Markets Next “Minsky Moment”

In this past weekend’s newsletter, I discussed the issue of the markets next “Minsky Moment.” Today, I want to expand on that analysis to discuss how the Fed’s drive to create “stability” eventually creates “instability.”

In 2007, I was at a conference where Paul McCulley, who was with PIMCO at the time, discussed the idea of a “Minsky Moment.”  At that time, this idea fell on “deaf ears” as markets were surging higher amidst a real estate boom. However, it wasn’t too long before the 2008 “Financial Crisis” brought the “Minsky Moment” thesis to the forefront.

So, what exactly is a “Minsky Moment?”

Economist Hyman Minsky argued that the economic cycle is driven more by surges in the banking system and credit supply. Such is different from the traditionally more critical relationship between companies and workers in the labor market. Since the Financial Crisis, the surge in debt across all sectors of the economy is unprecedented.

Markets Minsky Moment, Technically Speaking: The Markets Next “Minsky Moment”

Importantly, much of the Treasury debt is being monetized, and leveraged, by the Fed to, in theory, create “economic stability.” Given the high correlation between the financial markets and the Federal Reserve interventions, there is credence to Minsky’s theory. With an R-Square of nearly 80%, the Fed is clearly impacting financial markets.

Markets Minsky Moment, Technically Speaking: The Markets Next “Minsky Moment”

Those interventions, either direct or psychologicalsupport the speculative excesses in the markets currently.

Markets Minsky Moment, Technically Speaking: The Markets Next “Minsky Moment”

Bullish Speculation Is Evident

Minsky’s specifically noted that during periods of bullish speculation, if they last long enough, the excesses generated by reckless, speculative activity will eventually lead to a crisis. Of course, the longer the speculation occurs, the more severe the problem will be.

Currently, we see clear evidence of “bullish speculation” from:

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Two Pins Threatening Multiple Asset Bubbles

Two Pins Threatening Multiple Asset Bubbles

“Powell Says Fed Policies “Absolutely” Don’t Add To Inequality” -Bloomberg May 2020

The headline above is but one of countless times Fed Chairman Powell and his colleagues confidently said their policies do not result in wealth or income inequality. Their political stature and use of complex economic lingo give weight to their opinions in the media. Nevertheless, a deep examination of the Fed’s practices and their consequences leaves us to think otherwise.

In our opinion, the Fed’s contribution to wealth inequality is significant and grossly misunderstood. We have written articles explaining why QE and low interest rates generally benefit the wealthy and harm the poor. This article backs up those prior arguments with quantitative muscle.

Timely for investors, we also draw some lines between wealth inequality and financial stability and their relationship to monetary policy. We think it is becoming increasingly possible wealth inequality, and in particular, the outsized effect inflation has on the poor, could be the needle to pop many asset bubbles. The other possible needle is the Fed’s wanting for financial stability.

**Due to the importance of monetary policy from economic, societal, and market perspectives we are breaking this article into two. We will share part two next week.


More inflation and financial stability (rising asset prices) are two of the three core tenets backing monetary policy. A strong labor market is the third objective. We focus on inflation in this article and financial stability in part II.

In our article Two Percent for the One Percent, we explain why inflation is detrimental to the poor, while rising asset prices (financial stability) primarily benefit the wealthy. The following paragraphs from the article explain:

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

What Interest Rate Triggers The Next Crisis?

What Interest Rate Triggers The Next Crisis?

  • The Ten-year U.S. Treasury note yields 1.61%.
  • 10-year high-quality corporate bonds yield 2.09%.
  • The rate on a 30-year mortgage is 3.05%.

Despite recent increases, interest rates are hovering near historic lows.  We do not use the word “historic” lightly. By “historic,” we refer to the lowest levels since the nation’s birth in 1776.

The graph below, courtesy of the Visual Capitalist, highlights our point.

interest, What Interest Rate Triggers The Next Crisis?

Despite 300-year lows in interest rates, investors are becoming anxious because they are rising. Recent history shows they should worry. A review of the past 40 years reveals sudden spikes in interest rates and financial problems go hand in hand.

The question for all investors is how big a spike before the proverbial hits the fan again?

Debt-Driven Economy

Over the past 40 years, debt has increasingly driven economic growth.

That statement on its own tells us nothing about the health of the economy. To better quantify the benefits or consequences of debt, we need to understand how it was used.

When debt is used productively, the interest and principal are covered with higher profits and sustained economic activity. Even better, income beyond the cost of the debt makes the nation more prosperous.

Conversely, unproductive debt may provide a one-time spark of economic activity, but it yields little to no residual income to service it going forward. Ultimately it creates an economic headwind as servicing the debt in the future replaces productive investment and or consumption.

The graph below shows the steadily rising ratio of total outstanding debt to GDP. If debt, in aggregate, were productive, the ratio would be declining regardless of the amount of debt.

interest, What Interest Rate Triggers The Next Crisis?

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…


Plus ça change: A French Lesson in Monetary Debauchery

Plus ça change: A French Lesson in Monetary Debauchery

Fiscal policy shifted into turbo-charged, warp speed, overdrive early into the COVID related recession. To facilitate the borrowing binge, the Federal Reserve took unprecedented monetary actions. In 2020, the fiscal deficit (November 2019- October 2020) rose $3.1 trillion and was matched one for one with a $3.2 trillion increase in the Fed’s balance sheet.

The Fed is indirectly funding the government, but are they printing money? Technically they are not. However, they are inching closer through various funding programs in coordination with the Treasury Department.

Will the Fed ever print money? In our opinion, it is becoming increasingly likely as the requirements to service the interest and principal on existing debt, plus new debt, far exceeds what the economy is producing.

Given the increasingly dire mismatch between debt and economic activity, we think it is helpful to retell a tale we wrote about in 2015.  This article is more than a history lesson. It effectively illustrates the road on which the U.S. and many other nations currently travel.

This story is not a forecast but a simple reminder of what has repeatedly happened in the past.  

As you read, notice the lines French politicians use to persuade the opposition to justify money printing.  Note the similarities to the rationales used by central bankers, MMT’ers, and neo-Keynesian economists today. Then, as now, monetary policy is promoted as a cure for economic ills. As we are now constantly reminded, massive monetary actions have manageable consequences, and failure is blamed on not acting boldly enough.

Our gratitude to the late Andrew D. White, on whose work we relied heavily. The exquisite account of France circa the 1780-the 1790s was well documented in his paper entitled “Fiat Money Inflation in France” published in-1896. Any unattributed quotes were taken from his paper.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Olduvai IV: Courage
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Olduvai II: Exodus
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