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Watch: Cars carried away by floodwaters as month’s worth of rain pelts Malta

Watch: Cars carried away by floodwaters as month’s worth of rain pelts Malta

People trapped in cars, homes flooded, walls collapse

The scene in an Msida street on Thursday morning. Photo: Chris Sant FournierThe scene in an Msida street on Thursday morning. Photo: Chris Sant Fournier

Flash floods carried away cars, collapsed walls and trapped motorists in their submerged vehicles after a month’s worth of rain fell in a matter of hours on Thursday.

Police and army units were deployed as roads turned into rivers, leading to multiple water rescues and road closures throughout the day.

An overwhelmed Civil Protection Department appealed for people to avoid valleys and areas close to the sea. There were no reports of fatalities.

But two of their own officers had to be rescued by an Armed Forces of Malta helicopter as they got into difficulty rescuing an elderly man trapped in his car in Burmarrad. All three were airlifted to safety.

In another dramatic scene, a family of four was stranded on the roof of their taxi in Salina as the water rose around them. Eventually they had to use a rope to wade across to safety.

A woman is carried on the back of a Civil Protection Department officer in a rescue in Salina. Photo: Jonathan BorgA woman is carried on the back of a Civil Protection Department officer in a rescue in Salina. Photo: Jonathan Borg

“Reports indicate that this is one of the worst storms we have had in a long time,” said the CPD, who doubled its officers on duty to cope with “the influx of calls for assistance”.

Initially the CPD focussed its entire operation on rescue work, but by Thursday evening, a clean-up operation began and it started responding to non-urgent calls.

The flooding causing traffic jams on the Coast Road. Photo: Jonathan BorgThe flooding causing traffic jams on the Coast Road. Photo: Jonathan Borg

The Met Office issued an amber weather warning in the morning and revealed that an average of 74.6mm of rain fell, with one weather station in Selmun measuring 107.6mm in 24 hours.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Rising flood waters surround aid camp in South Sudan putting tens of thousands at risk

Rising flood waters surround aid camp in South Sudan putting tens of thousands at risk

Aid workers fear that protective mud dikes could soon break, leaving thousands of children in 1.5m deep murky water

A displaced persons camp with the same population as Oxford is surrounded on all sides by rising flood waters.

Aid workers fear that the mud dikes could soon break, leaving tens of thousands of children in 1.5m deep murky water.

At the start of the year, the situation was already desperate for the 100,000 people living in rows upon rows of scrappy NGO tents in the Bentiu IDP camp in South Sudan. But when the largest floods came in six decades, it became unbearable.

Aid workers estimate the camp’s population swelled by another 30,000 people fleeing the waterlogged land all around. Because the extreme floods have cut off the local sewage plant, only one in ten of the toilets on the camp now works and clean water supplies are well below emergency levels.

“We are effectively an island protected by these dikes,” said Jacob Goldberg, medical emergency manager at Doctors without Borders (MSF), told The Telegraph.

“The dikes are three metres high. The water is now 1.5 above the level of the ground inside the camp. It’s an extremely worrying situation. The water level is very slowly rising by two to three centimetres a day,” Mr Goldberg.

“People are now drinking the stagnant water, which poses an enormous health threat.”

A dike was already breached near the camp earlier in November, and the risk of those around the camp breaking is “huge”, according to MSF.

The aid agency also added that food was a huge problem. Rations from the World Food Program were cut to 50 per cent of the needed amount in April 2021 because of funding cuts. These do not cover the thousands of new arrivals.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Terry Glavin: The scale of the disaster unfolding in B.C. is unprecedented

Terry Glavin: The scale of the disaster unfolding in B.C. is unprecedented

The sheer damage to basic infrastructure caused by the flooding is catching everyone unprepared

VICTORIA — At some point in the coming days the penny will drop, and we’ll all be seized of the implications attending to the ongoing disaster on Canada’s west coast. First the rain, then the wind, and soon, everything will be freezing. For starters, if you think the Canadian economy is beset by global “supply chain” bottlenecks now, you just wait.

The Port of Vancouver, North Fraser, Fraser-Surrey Docks and Deltaport are now cut off from the rest of Canada, by road and by rail. Both CN Rail and CP Rail are assessing the extent of the damage to their rail lines in the Fraser Valley and Fraser Canyon districts. Neither company knows when the trains will be moving again.

The worst rail disruptions may last only a few days, but the Coquihalla Highway — the main road route connecting Metro Vancouver with British Columbia’s southern interior and points east, with roughly three-quarters of a million commercial truck transits every year — is gone. Deputy British Columbia Premier Mike Farnsworth says it may take “several weeks or months” to re-open the highway.

Owing to several washouts and mudslides, the old southerly route — Highway 3, snaking through the Cascades, Monashees and Selkirk mountains to the Crowsnest Pass in the Rockies — is impassable. The Fraser Canyon route, northward from Hope, about 130 kilometres east of Vancouver, has been smashed by rockslides and waterfalls that burst out of nowhere from the Coast mountains over the weekend.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

“Cry Me A River”

“Cry Me A River”

I got a Facebook message early this week from a friend in Sacramento CA that said after over 200 days with no rain, she got 4.83 inches in a 24-hour period from the latest extreme rainfall that occurred over northern California. Others have reported up to a foot of rain in three days. If you follow the news, you may have heard the term “atmospheric river” used to describe the torrential rains and flooding that have occurred this week in San Francisco and other parts of Northern California. In this post, I want to explain what atmospheric rivers are and how they affect rain climatology in the Western U.S. as well as other parts of the United States and the world.

Tahquamenon Falls–Autumn. Source: Wfgc, Commons Wikimedia.

What is an “atmospheric river”?

The term “atmospheric river” first appeared in the modern scientific literature in the early 1990s. Since it was first used, there has been a lot of discussion about what the term actually means. Commonly, it is seen as a band of very moist air flowing into a coastal area, bringing the potential for a lot of rain to the region that is at the downwind end of the flow. In some respects, it is like being on the receiving end of a firehose streaming high-intensity water right towards you! After a lot of discussion by meteorologists (described in this Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society article) the official definition in the Glossary of Meteorology became:

Atmospheric river – A long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water vapor transport that is typically associated with a low-level jet stream ahead of the cold front of an extratropical cyclone. The water vapor in atmospheric rivers is supplied by tropical and/or extratropical moisture sources…

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

14 Million People Under Flood Warning As Storm Batters Mid-Atlantic

14 Million People Under Flood Warning As Storm Batters Mid-Atlantic

More than 14 million people are under a coastal flood warning early Saturday after heavy rains and strong winds unleashed flooding across the Washington, D.C.-Maryland-Virginia area on Friday.

“The neighbors who have been here a long time say it hasn’t been this high since Isabel, and in their lifetime, that’s the only time it’s been this high,” Baltimore County resident Tyler Fields told WJZ Baltimore. Fields was referring to Hurricane Isabel, which battered the area in 2003.

“While a bulk of the heavy rainfall has concluded, additional rain will track from south to north tonight,” the National Weather Service (NWS) in the Washington-Baltimore region tweeted late Friday. “Additionally, tidal/coastal flooding continues with moderate to major flooding in the forecast! Water levels remain elevated through at least Sat.” 

Along with the rain, strong winds were a significant factor in the flooding, pushing water up the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay, which caused flooding along the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. There were also reports of coastal flooding in Delaware and New Jersey.

Here are some of the key points of the weather event via WaPo:

  • Coastal flooding has resulted in 2 to 4 feet of inundation along the shores of the tidal Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay. In some areas, the highest water levels and most severe coastal flooding are anticipated late Friday night into the predawn hours Saturday at the next high tide. Water levels should gradually fall over the weekend.
  • On Friday afternoon, Old Town Alexandria recorded its third highest tide on record, and highest since 2003.
  • One to two inches of rain fell across the region, with some flooding of small streams. A little more rain is possible this evening before tapering to scattered showers overnight.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Northern California Swamped With “Historic Rain” Amid Rare Atmospheric River Event 

Northern California Swamped With “Historic Rain” Amid Rare Atmospheric River Event 

The National Weather Service’s (NWS) Sacramento office said “potentially historic rain” rain has fallen in parts of Northern California after a bomb cyclone accompanied an atmospheric river that unleashed massive amounts of moisture pulled in from the Pacific Ocean.

Northern California bore the brunt late Saturday/Sunday, with record rainfall in some areas. NWS Bay Area said“We just passed the Gold Rush year of 1849 for 7th wettest October on record for Downtown SF. 1876 (3.36) here we come..(Current value is 3.14 which ties 1849).” 

“If you are in the vicinity of a recent burn scar and haven’t already, prepare now for likely debris flows,” the Sacramento weather service tweeted. “If you are told to evacuate by local officials, or you feel threatened, do not hesitate to do so. If it is too late to evacuate, get to higher ground.”

Flooded streets were reported across the Bay Area, closing some in Berkeley and Oakland’s Bay Bridge toll plaza. Just north of San Francisco, a whopping 6 inches of rain has fallen this weekend. Rainfall estimates for the Bay Area show at least 3 inches have fallen, trouncing any other storm in years.

“Some of our higher elevation locations could see 6, 7, 8 inches of rain before we’re all said and done,” Sean Miller, a meteorologist for the NWS in Monterey. 

The convergence of storms brings Northern California a huge relief amid devastating droughts and wildfires this past summer.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Bomb Cyclone To Unleash Atmospheric River Over Northern California

Bomb Cyclone To Unleash Atmospheric River Over Northern California

A “bomb cyclone” will unleash an atmospheric river Saturday night into Sunday across Northern California.

“By Saturday night, a rapidly intensifying Pacific cyclone directing a powerful atmospheric river squarely at the West Coast delivers a fire hose of rich subtropical moisture into California,” the Weather Prediction Center (WPC) said Friday. 

These two simultaneous weather phenomenons will result in the season’s first snow event in the Sierras and torrential rains for the coastline and valleys across central and Northern California.

“You might hear this term referencing the Sunday-Monday storm coming our way. A bomb cyclone is simply a storm that gets very strong very quickly. It drops at least 24 mb (a unit of pressure) in 24 hours. The lower the pressure, the stronger the storm,” said Sacramento-based KTXL’s Adam Epstein

In Northern California, rainfall estimates through the end of the weekend are around 2-4 inches. In San Francisco, estimates are upwards of 3 inches.

WPC warns that some areas could receive 8-10 inches.

The rare level 5 atmospheric river event could be enough rain to alleviate drought-stricken areas ravaged by wildfires.

“An atmospheric river marked as a category 4 or a 5 is capable of producing remarkable rainfall totals over three or more days, likely to exceed 10% to 15% of a typical year’s precipitation in some locations,” said Marty Ralph, director of the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes at the University of California San Diego.

In higher elevations, wet snow across the Sierras could amount to 1-3 feet.

The news gets better for Northern California and the Pacific Northwest as WPC has declared La Niña conditions, which means wetter than average conditions will ease areas plagued by drought. As for Southern and Central California, La Niña means a drier than average winter.

Tiny North American Oat Crop Could Be Coming for Your Breakfast

Tiny North American Oat Crop Could Be Coming for Your Breakfast

The smallest harvest ever in the U.S. is expected to shrink supplies needed for everything from Cheerios to oat milk

A drought struck North America’s oat fields this season, and farmers are harvesting such a small crop that prices have risen to record highs, signaling inflation for breakfast staples like oatmeal and trendy alternative milk.

Severe hot and dry weather probably slashed oat production by nearly half to an 11-year low in Canada, the world’s biggest exporter. Similarly in the U.S., one of the world’s top consumers of the grain, the harvest will be the smallest ever. The result is all-time high costs that will likely filter down to consumers.

The situation for North American farmers was so dire in the summer that many cut their losses and harvested damaged plants to be sold as feed for animals. That means even less will be available for making popular foods like granola bars and Cheerios, the No. 1 cold cereal in the U.S.

“You can’t make a Cheerio out of barley,” said Randy Strychar, president of Ag Commodity Research and Oatinformation.com.

While major food companies haven’t announced price increases related to oat products yet, the higher costs for the grain can only add to the food inflation that’s been rampant this year. Global food prices recently touched a decade high, according to a United Nations index, while oat futures on Friday climbed as much as 2.1% to reach an all-time high of $6.36 a bushel.

The oat has a humble history as a staid breakfast choice in the form of oatmeal or cereal. But more recently it’s become a trendy darling of millennials. Food companies targeting younger, affluent consumers are billing it as an accessible superfood. Environmentalists tout it as a key crop for reducing carbon emissions in agriculture…

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Signs The Worst Winter in Years is Coming

Signs The Worst Winter in Years is Coming

“You think winter will never end, and then, when you don’t expect it, when you have almost forgotten it, warmth comes and a different light” – Wendell Berry.

It’s hard to think about winter when many regions are broiling in the sun right now, but there are enough indicators out there that this winter may be particularly brutal.  We may have another record-breaking winter in the northern hemisphere.  Scientists, climatologists, and meteorologists are all reporting a perfect storm of conditions coming together to brew up a winter as we have never seen before.  In this video, I will explain these conditions as best that I can.  I am not a meteorologist, by any means, but I can follow the science enough to know that if you’re in Europe or the United States, you should be paying attention.

And, as I have shown in other blogs, our aging infrastructure isn’t equipped to handle the extended periods of extreme cold that are currently being predicted.  Just ask anyone in Texas about that, as almost the entire state was left without power for many days this past February due to the extreme cold.  Ice on sagging power lines and frozen pipes could result in an outage that can quickly escalate to a disaster for many.

At the end of this video, I will give you a warning I would encourage you to heed.  But for now, here’s why this winter might be especially brutal…

POLAR VORTEX

The first piece of this colder than average weather prediction is the polar vortex.  A polar vortex is a low-pressure, vast expanse of swirling cold air that is parked in the polar region…

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

The Dangerous Ideas of “Longtermism” and “Existential Risk”

So-called rationalists have created a disturbing secular religion that looks like it addresses humanity’s deepest problems, but actually justifies pursuing the social preferences of elites.

In a late-2020 interview with CNBC, Skype cofounder Jaan Tallinn made a perplexing statement. “Climate change,” he said, “is not going to be an existential risk unless there’s a runaway scenario.” A “runaway scenario” would occur if crossing one or more critical thresholds in the climate system causes Earth’s thermostat to rise uncontrollably. The hotter it has become, the hotter it will become, via self-amplifying processes. This is probably what happened a few billion years ago on our planetary neighbor Venus, a hellish cauldron whose average surface temperature is high enough to melt lead and zinc.

Fortunately, the best science today suggests that a runaway scenario is unlikely, although not impossible. Yet even without a runaway scenario, the best science also frighteningly affirms that climate change will have devastating consequences. It will precipitate lethal heatwaves, megadroughts, catastrophic wildfires (like those seen recently in the Western U.S.), desertification, sea-level rise, mass migrations, widespread political instability, food-supply disruptions/famines, extreme weather events (more dangerous hurricanes and flash floods), infectious disease outbreaks, biodiversity loss, mass extinctions, ecological collapse, socioeconomic upheaval, terrorism and wars, etc. To quote an ominous 2020 paper co-signed by more than 11,000 scientists from around the world, “planet Earth is facing a climate emergency” that, unless immediate and drastic action is taken, will bring about “untold suffering.”

So why does Tallinn think that climate change isn’t an existential risk? Intuitively, if anything should count as an existential risk it’s climate change, right?

Cynical readers might suspect that, given Tallinn’s immense fortune of an estimated $900 million, this might be just another case of a super-wealthy tech guy dismissing or minimizing threats that probably won’t directly harm him personally. Despite being disproportionately responsible for the climate catastrophe, the super-rich will be the least affected by it. Peter Thiel—the libertarian who voted for a climate-denier in 2016—has his “apocalypse retreat” in New Zealand, Richard Branson owns his own hurricane-proof island, Jeff Bezos bought some 400,000 acres in Texas, and Elon Musk wants to move to Mars. Astoundingly, Reid Hoffman, the multi-billionaire who cofounded LinkedIn, reports that “more than 50 percent of Silicon Valley’s billionaires have bought some level of ‘apocalypse insurance,’ such as an underground bunker.”

That’s one possibility, for sure. But I think there’s a deeper reason for Tallinn’s comments. It concerns an increasingly influential moral worldview called longtermism. This has roots in the work of philosopher Nick Bostrom, who coined the term “existential risk” in 2002 and, three years later, founded the Future of Humanity Institute (FHI) based at the University of Oxford, which has received large sums of money from both Tallinn and Musk. Over the past decade, “longtermism” has become one of the main ideas promoted by the “Effective Altruism” (EA) movement, which generated controversy in the past for encouraging young people to work for Wall Street and petrochemical companies in order to donate part of their income to charity, an idea called “earn to give.” According to the longtermist Benjamin Todd, formerly at Oxford University, “longtermism might well turn out to be one of the most important discoveries of effective altruism so far.”

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Summer 2021 Hotter Than ‘Dust Bowl’ Of The 1930s, NOAA Says

Summer 2021 Hotter Than ‘Dust Bowl’ Of The 1930s, NOAA Says

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) confirmed in a new report that the average temperature during this summer for the contiguous U.S. was hotter than the Dust Bowl in the 1930s.

The meteorological summer between June 1 to Sept. 1 averaged 74F for the U.S., or 2.6 degrees warmer than the long-term average. NOAA said, “this technically exceeds the record heat of the 1936 Dust Bowl Summer, but the difference is extremely small (less than 0.01 of a degree F).” 

Readers should be familiar with our weather notes this summer, pointing out extreme temperatures and drought across the country’s western half.

NOAA said 18.4% of the contiguous U.S. experienced records, with five states, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah, setting new records for the warmest meteorological summers of all time. Another 16 states had a top-five warmest summer on record.

The most notable heat wave of the summer was in the Pacific Northwest of the country, which sparked wildfires and stressed out energy grids across Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Northern California. More than 35 metro areas in the western U.S. tied or registered new records during multiday heat waves. In some of these places, temperatures surpassed 120F.

Tying a couple of months of heat waves to global warming requires a lot of analysis. Although climate alarmists, such as Greta Thunberg, had no problem tweeting mainstream media reports about how the world was going to hell and condemning fossil fuels.

We noted last week cooler weather trends are ahead after Sept. 17-19.

Plunging Crop Supplies Send Prices Soaring And Reignite Food Inflation Fears, WASDE Reports

Plunging Crop Supplies Send Prices Soaring And Reignite Food Inflation Fears, WASDE Reports

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report was released Thursday afternoon and pointed to declining grain supplies that sent grain futures prices higher and will keep food inflation in focus.

The closely watched supply and demand report slashed estimates for corn yields and stockpiles. World inventories for wheat were reported near a five-year low.

Grain and oilseed futures soared to a near-decade high earlier this year but have been in a holding pattern for the last month, awaiting new reports on the outlook for upcoming U.S. harvests. A megadrought and back-to-back heat waves have plagued the corn belt and the U.S. West for much of the summer. 

December corn futures were up more than 2% to $5.7150 a bushel on the Chicago Board of Trade, soybean futures popped on the report and are now flat at the end of the U.S. cash session, wheat futures rose more than 3%, hitting a fresh eight-year high.

The Bloomberg Grains Index closed up 1% on the report.

Bloomberg outlines the key takeaways from the August WASDE report:

  • DROUGHT BITES: U.S. corn and soybean yields fell below analyst expectations and the declines were largely centered in the drought-stricken northern Plains, where severe drought has withered crops.
  • RUSSIA: So goes Russia’s harvest, so goes the wheat market. A large cut in the harvest means a lot less global wheat supplies and Russia’s wheat-export throne as the world’s top shipper is in doubt with the current forecast in line with exports out of the E.U.
  • WHEAT PEAK: Benchmark Chicago wheat prices hit the highest levels for a most-active contract since 2013. Corn and soybeans each touched multi-week highs but remain below multi-year peaks from earlier in 2021.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

200 Million Americans Roast In Two Massive “Heat Domes” 

200 Million Americans Roast In Two Massive “Heat Domes” 

At the beginning of the week, we told readers the dog days of summer have finally arrived with above-average temperatures for most of the country.

By late Thursday, watch/warning/advisory alerts for dangerous heat extended to nearly 200 million Americans as multiple heat domes scorch the Pacific Northwest, Central states, and East Coast.

“Dangerous heat and humidity in the Northwest, Northeast, and central portions of the CONUS have prompted Excessive Heat Warnings and Heat Advisories. Severe thunderstorms will impact the areas from the Midwest into the Great Lakes through Thursday,” the National Weather Service (NWS) wrote on its website. 

“Around 195 million Americans are under a watch/warning/advisory for dangerous heat. Yes, it’s summer, but this type of heat can kill,” the National Weather Service (NWS) warned in a tweet. 

Temperature forecasts for the lower 48 states show mean temperatures will peak Friday/Saturday and trend lower through Monday, with another spurt of hot weather slated through Aug. 22.

NYMEX Natgas futures have slumped nearly 4% in the last four sessions as traders begin to price in colder weather next week.

As we’ve shown, average temperatures are peaking for the lower 48 states and should begin to decline after this month.

Meanwhile, hot temps and a megadrought in the US West have fueled 105 large files burning 2.4 million acres in 14 states. The largest fire is Dixie in northern California, burning more than 500,000 acres so far.

Making matters worse, Bloomberg reports a La Niña weather pattern is forecasted to develop during the August-October season and last through the 2021-22 winter.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Frost Bites Brazilian Sugar Crop As Prices Zoom Higher 

Frost Bites Brazilian Sugar Crop As Prices Zoom Higher 

Brazil’s top producing regions for coffeeoranges, and sugar have been devastated by the worst weather in decades and could leave a lasting impact on prices, according to Bloomberg.

The South American country is one of the world’s leading coffee, sugar, and orange producers experienced a cold snap and drought this growing season in the Center-South area that has significantly damaged crops.

We have focused on coffee and orange markets and how prices are sloping higher after harvest output will likely come in well below average.

Now we’re setting our eyes on the sugar market, where losses in production, exacerbated by an already tight global supply, is fueling higher prices that may be sticking around for the next 18 months.

“We are getting into a boom cycle for the commodity prices,” said Pierre Santoul, chief executive officer in Brazil of France-based Tereos SCA. He said sugar prices are expected to remain elevated through early 2023. 

Tereos’s sugar-cane crushing may fall to the lowest levels since the 2009-10 season, to 16.6 million metric tons, or about a 21% reduction from 20.9 million crushed in 2020-21. The nation’s sugar-cane industry group Unica said sugar content in cane fell in the country from a year ago, while cane yield dropped 18%.

Santoul said the extent of the devastation is still unknown. He said mills had increased harvesting to avoid further cane deterioration. He added that if the weather improves in October and rains relieve droughts, the dismal scenario may slightly improve.

Weather disruptions in Brazil mean higher prices for coffee, oranges, and or sugar. Since most of these farm goods are exported, and shipping costs are at record highs, it’s only a matter of time before US wholesalers pass along the costs to consumers.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

All of a sudden: Climate change tipping points appear with a vengeance

All of a sudden: Climate change tipping points appear with a vengeance

Across the world climate change seems to have arrived earlier than expected. There are world-class athletes with bodies trained for endurance and strength breaking down from the extreme heat visited on the Tokyo Olympics by mother nature. There are the continuing wildfires in the American West that take out entire towns. The drought there is so bad that states are thinking about paying farmers NOT to irrigate their crops as a conservation strategy.

One of the other effects of climate change is heavier rains and devastating floods. Recent floods in Germany were caused by rains characterized as once-in-a-millennium, rains which, for example, killed more than 200 people and caused $1.5 billion in damage to the German railway network. But, of course, statements about once-in-a-fill-in-the-blank rains or droughts seem less and less relevant in the age of climate change as what we call extraordinarily destructive weather just morphs into “the weather.”

Once-in-a-millennium rains also visited parts of China recently dumping in just three days an entire year’s rainfall on one town of 12 million.

The infrastructure we have built and the way we work and live are simply not designed for these extremes. Our systems are breaking down under the pressure of climate-change-induced extreme weather.

But the scariest thing is that all of the incidents I cited above could happen all over again next year and the next year and the next after that in the same places as extreme weather worsens and becomes just “weather.” In California, 2020 marked the worst fire season ever in the state. But 2021 is now on pace to be even worse.

…click on the above link to read the rest of the article…

Olduvai IV: Courage
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Olduvai II: Exodus
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